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After a Medallion Portrait by W. L. Ormsby. 

From Portraits of the Principal Reformers. 
New York, Charles Wells, 1836. 

fatnrk l|amtltott 

The First Lutheran Preacher and 
Martyr of Scotland 



St. Louis, Mo. 
concordia publishing house 







1 1*14 L 



I. Hamilton's Birth 1 

II. Hamilton Goes to Paris 2 

III. Hamilton Returns to Scotland....' 4 

IV. Lutheran Books Enter Scotland... 5 
V. Hamilto^i Teaches Lutheran Doc- 
trines 8 

VI. Hamilton Flees to Germany 8 

VII. Hamilton Goes to Marburg 13 

VIII. Hamilton Holds the First Debate 

at Marburg 16 

IX. Hamilton's Theses 17 

X. Hamilton Returns to Scotland.... 23 

XL Hamilton Marries 24 

XII. Hamilton is Called to St. Andrews 2.5 

XIII. Hamilton Debates 26 

XIV. Hamilton is Called Before the Arch- 

bishop 26 

XV. Hamilton is Condemned 28 

XVI. Hamilton Sentenced 36 

XVII. Hamilton Burned 38 

XVIIL Jov among the Catholics 42 


XIX. Grief among the Lutherans 42 


XX. Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland 43 


Prof. Mitchell's Scottish Reformation. 

Bishop Mitchell's Biog. Studies Scot. Ch. Hist. 

Prof. Lori.mer's Patrick Hamilton. 

John Knox's Hist. Reform, in Scotland. 

John Spotswood's Hist. Church in Scotland. 

John Cunningham's Church Hist, of Scotland. 

D'Altbigne's Reformation in Scotland. 

Hume's History. 

Taylor's Pictorial Hist, of Scotland. 

Steel's Burning and Shining Lights. 

Hutton's Lit. Landmarks of the Scottish Uni- 

London Christian Observer, 1857. 

Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Realencyk to pa cd ie. 

Lodge's Portraits Illustrious Personages of 
(irrat Britain. 

Char'.es Wells, Publisher, Portraits of the 
Principal Reformers. N. Y., 1836. 

Cassel, Publisher, Our Own Country. 

3' IC 


\i \ ' ■• -' ii rn 


Hamilton's Birth. 

Patrick Hamilton was born near Glas- 
gow, about 1504. His father was Sir 
Patrick Hamilton, son of Lord of Hamil- 
ton and Princess Mary, daughter of King 
James II of Scotland. Sir Patrick was 
the first of Scottish knights when Scottish 
chivalry was in the height of its glory. 
The mother of our hero was Catherine 
Stewart, daughter of the Duke of Albany, 
second son of King James II. So, then, 
Hamilton was of royal- blood, both on his 
father's and on his mother's side. 

On September 9, 1533, King James IV 
and Scotland's flower fell on the fatal field 
of Plodden, and Patrick's uncle, the Duke 
of Albany, became Regent of the realm 
during the minority of James- V. Another 
uncle, the first earl of Arran, was one of 
the most powerful nobles in the kingdom. 

Brought up among relatives of rank and 
refinement, of manly virtues and scholarly 

Hamilton Goes to Paris. 

accomplishinents, it is no wonder the first 
Reformer of Scotland became distinguished 
for high breeding and courtesy and for an 
intense love of all humane and liberal 
studies. With divine grace added to the 
gifts of noble birth and careful education, 
he became the most zealous and most 
courteous of evangelists; a confessor of 
the truth; mild and modest in manners, 
firm in spirit and principles ; a martyr 
learned and cultivated as well as fervent 
and devoted. 


Hamilton Goes to Paris. 

When Hamilton was only fourteen years 
old, the influence of his powerful family 
made him Abbot of Feme, and the income 
gave him means to study abroad. He en- 
tered the College of Montaigu in Paris, 
where John Major, the great Scottish light, 
was teaching at the time, and in 1520 he 
became a Master of Arts. 

During Hamilton's residence on the 
banks of the Seine, "an impulse was propa- 
gated to the University from a soul im- 
mensely more potent and world-subduing 
than the polished and timid scholar of 


Hamilton Goes to Paris. 

Rotterdam. In 1519 the strong hand of 
Luther knocked violently at its gates, and 
the sound went through all its studious 
halls and cloisters," Lorimer writes. 

"In that year a great many copies were 
brought to Paris of the Leipzig Disputation 
between Luther and Eck, twenty of which 
Magister John Nicolas, quaestor of the 
Gallic nation, purchased on the 20th of 
January, by appointment of the nation, for 
the use of those who were deputed by the 
university to examine the book, and of 
any others who might wish to report their 
opinion thereon to the university," says 
Bulaeus in Historia Universitatis Pari- 

All Europe waited anxiously for the de- 
cision. The issue was doubtful, for Lu- 
theran votes were not wanting even in the 
Sorbonne. At length the champions of the 
old darkness prevailed over the friends of 
the new light. The university solemnly 
decreed, on the 15th of April, 1521, in the 
presence of students from every country 
in Christendom, that Luther was a heretic, 
and that his work should be publicly 
thrown into the flames. 

Hamilton Returns to Scotland. 

In a few months there arrived in Paris 
"A Defense of Martin Luther against the 
Furibund Decree of the Parisian Theolo- 
gasters" from the pen of young Philip 
Melanchthon of Wittenberg, as pungent as 
it was polished, and as contemptuous as it 
was elegant, and it made an immense sen- 

From Paris, Hamilton went to the Uni- 
versity of Louvain, in Holland, most likely 
to study under Erasmus. 

Hamilton Returns to Scotland. 

When Constantine the Great would en- 
rich his cathedral at Constantinople with 
the bones of St. Andrew, a vision told 
St. Regulus to take the relics from Patras 
in Achaia and sail west. He did so, and 
was ■• wrecked on the shores of Scotland, 
October 29, 370. Thus St. Andrew became 
the patron saint of that country, and the 
place of the wreck grew into the seat of 
the Primate of the Scottish Church, became 
the Vatican of Scotland. Also, it became 
the most picturesque and the most vener- 
able of Scotland's university towns, and 

4 - 

Lutheran Books Enter Scotland. 

the mother of them all. Just by the way, 
St, Andrews is also the world's headquarters 
of the great game of golf. 

Of this famous university Patrick Hamil- 
ton became a member on June 9, 1523, the 
same day that the one great Scotch school- 
man, John Major, was received as Prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's College. On October 3, 
1524, Hamilton joined the Faculty of Arts. 
Though an abbot, he never wore the garb 
of a monk. - 

Here Hamilton composed a mass for 
nine voices in honor of the angels, sung in- 
the cathedral, directed by the composer 


Lutheran Books Enter Scotland. 

While attending on the Duke of Albany 
in Edinburgh, before 1523, M. de la Tour 
vented Lutheran opinions, and in 1527 suf- 
fered for heresy at Paris. 

At the end of 1524, books of Luther were 
brought into Scotland and created a sensa- 
tion, as they did everywhere. Garwin Dun- 
bar, the old bishop of Aberdeen, was the 
first to find it out, discovering one day a 


Lutheran Boolcs Enter Scotland. 

volume of Luther in his own town. He 
was in great fear when he saw that the fiery- 
darts hurled by the heretic of Germany 
were crossing into Scotland. As like dis- 
coveries were made in St. Andrews, Lin- 
lithgow, and other places, the affair was 
brought before Parliament. 

On July IT, 1525, when James V was 
fourteen years old and managing affairs 
himself, the clergy procured the passing 
of the following act: "Forasmuch as the 
damnable opinions of heresy are spread in 
divers countries by the heretic Luther and 
his disciples, . . . therefore, that no manner 
of person, stranger, that happens to arrive 
with the ships within any part of this 
realm, bring with them any books or works 
of said Luther's, his disciples or servants — 
dispute or rehearse his heresies or opin- 
ions, unless it be to the confusion thereof, 
under pain of escheating of their ships 
and goods, and putting of their persons in 
prison. And that this act will be published 
and proclaimed throughout this realm at 
all ports and burghs of the same, so that 
they may allege no ignorance thereof." 

In August of the same year another act 


Lutheran Books Enter Scotland. 

states that "sundry strangers and others 
within the diocese of Aberdeen have books 
of that heretic Luther, and favor his errors 
and false opinions, in contravention of our 
Act of Parliament lately made in our last 
parliament," and asks, "that you confiscate 
their goods." 

In a short time the number of Lutherans 
became so alarming that in 1527 an addi- 
tional clause provided for the punishment 
of Scotch Lutherans the same as foreigners. 
Luther was at length at the gates of the 
National Church. Luther's books and 
opinions — those arrows of the mighty — 
had already found their way into not a few 
Scottish hearts and homes. As early as 
1525 traders from Leith, Dundee, and 
Montrose purchased Tyndale's English New 
Testament, "recently invented by Martin 
Luther," as some monks declared, in the 
marts of Flanders and Holland, and sold 
them in Edinburgh, and mostly in St. An- 
drews. All that was wanting now was the 
voice of the living preacher. The first 
that God prepared and produced was Pat- 
rick Hamilton. 


Hamilton Teaches Lutheran Doctrines. 


Hamilton Teaches Lutheran Doctrines. 

In 152G Hamilton began to declare openly 
his new convictions, in the cathedral and 
elsewhere, and soon the report of his heresy 
was carried to the ears of the Archbishop. 
In 1527 Beaton "made faithful inquisition 
during' Lent," and found Hamilton "in- 
famed with heresy, disputing, holding, and 
maintaining divers heresies of Martin 
Luther and his followers, repugnant to the 
faith" ; whereupon he proceeded to "decern 
him" to be formally summoned and accused. 

That meant burning, as Paul Craw, the 
Hussite preacher, had been burned at 
St. Andrews in 1433. 

Hamilton Flees to Germany. 

Hamilton was not ready just yet for the 
crown of martyrdom, and so he went to 
Germany, in April, 1527, accompanied by 
John Hamilton, of Linlithgow, and Gil- 
bert Wynram, of Edinburgh. 

"He passed to the schools in Germany, 
for then the fame of Wittenberg was greatly 


Hamilton Flees to Germany. 

divulged in all countries; where, by God's 
providence, he became familiar with those 
lights and notable servants of Jesus Christ 
at that time, ]\Iartin Luther, Philip 
Melanchthon, and Francis Lambert," says 

According to Lorimer, at Wittenberg the 
young Scotch abbot found the monasteries 
deserted, and Luther, once a monk, living 
happily in a few rooms of the empty 
Augustinian cloister, with his new-married 
wife, a converted and fugitive nun, Catha- 
rina von Bora. He saw the churches of 
the city purged of the old superstitions. 
He heard the Gospel-hymns of Luther sung 
in loud and fervent chorus by crowded con- 
gregations. He saw the excellent pastor, 
John Bugenhagen — Pomeranus -. — stand- 
ing in the pulpit of the ancient parish 
church, and preaching the Word of Life 
to the zealous burghers. He listened with 
admiration to the eloquence of Luther, 
poured forth upon select congregations of 
courtiers and academics from the pulpit of 
the Castle Church. In both churches he 
saw the Sacrament of the Lord's body and 
blood administered to the communicants in 





After Cranacli, in Milan. 


KATE LUTIIEU. ir,'29. 
After Cranach, in Milan. 


Hamilton Goes to Marhurg. 

both kinds. Luther's New Testament was 
read everywhere. The little city was 
crowded to inconvenience with the multi- 
tude of students who flocked from all parts 
of Europe to sit at the feet of Luther and 

Hamilton Goes to Marburg. 

When the pest broke out in Wittenberg, 
the Scots went to the banks of the Lahn, 
where Philip of Hessen opened the new 
University of Marburg, May 30, 152Y, and 
they enrolled their names in the new album 
among the hundred and four cives of the 
academic body; they were numbers 37, 38, 
and 39. 

The head of the theological faculty was 
Francis Lambert, of Avignon, the first 
French monk to be converted by Luther's 
writings. He studied over a year under 
Luther at Wittenberg, and later drew up 
the program of the Hessian reformation in 
his "Paradoxes," the first of which reads: 
"All that is deiormed ought to be reformed. 
The Word of God alone teaches us what 
ought to be so, and all reform effected 
otherwise is vain." 






Painting in Hertford College, Oxford. 


Hamilion Holds the First Debate at Marhurg. 

Lambert says Hamilton's "learning was 
of no common kind for his years, and his 
judgment in divine truth was eminently 
clear and solid. His object in visiting the 
University was to confirm himself more 
abundantly in the truth; and I can truly 
say that I have seldom met with any one 
who conversed on the Word of God with 
greater spirituality and earnestness of 

In 1525 Tyndale had printed the fii'st two 
editions of his !N^ew Testament at Worms, 
and, to escape Cardinal Wolsey's agents, 
came to Marburg in 1527, and these two 
martyrs for a time lived and labored to- 
gether in the far-away German city. 


Hamilton Holds the First Debate at 

"Hamilton was the first man after the 
erection of the University who put forth 
a series of theses to be publicly defended. 
These theses were conceived in the most 
evangelical spirit, and were maintained 
with the greatest learning. It was by my 
advice that he published them," says Lam- 


Hamilton's Theses. 

From them it is clear that Hamilton was 
a close student of Luther, especially of his 
"Freedom of a Christian Man," published 
in 1520. They are the earliest doctrinal 
production of the St^ottish Reformation, 
and they prove with primary authority that 
the beginning of that Reformation was 

They were translated by John Frith, the 
English martyr, and embodied by Knox 
in his History of the Be formation, and by 
Fox in his Acts and Monum,ents, "and so 
became a corner-stone of Protestant the- 
ology both in Scotland and England." They 
are known as Patrick's "Places," or Com- 
mon Places, likely from Melanchthon's Loci 
Communes of 1521. 

Hamilton's Theses. 

Hamilton's teaching is so beautiful that 
we cannot forbear quoting samples copied 
from rare books. 

1. The Difference between the Law and 
the Gospel. 

"The Law showeth us our sin, the Gospel 

showeth us remedy for it. The Law showeth 














•— ( 

►— * 















I— t 



After Cranach. 


Hamilton's Theses. 

us our condemnation, the Gospel showeth 
us our redemption. The Law is the word 
of ire, the Gospel is the word of grace. The 
Law is the word of despair, the Gospel is 
the word of comfort. 

"The Law saith to the sinner, Pay thy 
debt ; the Gospel saith, Christ hath paid it. 
The Law saith, Thou art a sinner, despair, 
thou shalt be damned; the Gospel saith. 
Thy sins are forgiven thee, be of good com- 
fort, thou shalt be saved. The Law saith. 
The Father of heaven is angry with thee; 
the Gospel saith, Christ hath pacified Him 
with His blood. The Law saith, Where is 
thy righteousness, goodness, and satisfac- 
tion i' The Gospel saith, Christ is thy 
righteousness, goodness, and satisfaction. 
The Law saith, Thou art bound and 
obliged to me, to the devil, and to hell; 
the Gospel saith, Christ hath delivered thee 
from them all." 

2. The Nature of Faith. 

"The faith of Christ is to believe in Him, 
tliat is, to believe His word, and believe 
that Ho will help thee in all thy need, and 
deliver thee from all evil. Thou wilt ask 
me. What word? I answer, The Gospel. 


Hamilton's Theses. 

He that believeth not the Gospel believeth 
not God ; he that believeth the Gospel shall 
be safe. He that hath faith is just and 
good. All that is done in faith pleaseth 
God. He that lacketh faith cannot please 
God; he that hath faith and believeth in 
God cannot displease Him. 

"Faith is the gift of God, it is not in our 
own power. Faith is the root of all good; 
incredulity is the root of all evil. Faith 
maketh God and man good friends; in- 
credulity niaketh them foes. Faith only 
maketh a man good and righteous; in- 
credulity only maketh him unjust and evil. 
Faith holdeth stiff by the Word of God; 
incredulity wavereth here and there. Faith 
loveth both God and his neighbor; incre- 
dulity loveth neither of them. Faith only 
saveth us; incredulity only condemneth us. 

"Faith cometh of the Word of God; 
hope cometh by faith; and charity spring- 
eth of them both. Faith believeth the 
Word; hope trusteth after that which is 
promised by the Word; charity doeth good 
unto her neighbor through the love that she 
hath to God, and gladness that is within 
herself. Faith looketh to God and His 


Hamilton's Theses. 

Word; hope looketh unto His gift and 
reward; charity looketh on her neighbor's 
profit. Faith receiveth God; hope receiveth 
His reward; charity loveth her neighbors 
with a glad heart, without any respect of 

3. The Sufficiency of the Work of Christ. 

"Whosoever believeth or thinketh to be 
saved by his works denieth that Christ 
is his Savior, that Christ died for him, and 
that all things pertain to Christ. For how 
is He thy Savior if thou niightest save thy- 
self by thy works, or whereto should He die 
for thee if any works might have saved 
thee? What is this, to say Christ died for 
thee? Verily, that thou shouldest have 
died eternally, and Christ, to deliver thee 
from death, died for thee, and changed thy 
eternal death into His own death; for 
thou madest the fault, and He suffered 
the punishment, and that for the love He 
had to thee before thou wast born, when 
thou hadst done neither good nor evil. 
Now, seeing He hath paid thy debt, thou 
needest not, neither canst thou, pay it, but 
shouldest ho damned if His blood were not. 
But since He was punished for thee, thou 


Hmnilton Returns to Scotland. 

shalt not be /punished. Finally, He hath 
delivered thee from thy condemnation and 
from all evil, and desireth naught of thee 
but that thou wilt acknowledge what He 
hath done for thee, and bear it in mind, 
and that thou wouldest help others for 
His sake both in word and deed, even as 
He hath holpen thee for naught and with- 
out reward. Oh! how ready would we be 
to help others if we knew His goodness 
and gentleness toward us. He is a good 
and a gentle Lord, for He doth all for 
naught. Let us, I beseech you, therefore 
follow His footsteps, whom all the world 
ought to praise and worship. Amen." 

Hamilton Returns to Scotland. 

. Having read Luther, Hamilton became 
a Lutheran in doctrine; having lived for 
a time in the element which the great 
Reformer spread around him, Hamilton 
became a Lutheran in spirit as well as in 
doctrine. The sight of Luther's firm cour- 
age and constancy gave new strength to 
the young Scot, and he could not long 
admire such a shining example of heroism 


Hatniltun Marries. 

of faith without himsc4f being converted 
into an evangelical hero. His friends 
pleaded with him to stay in safety in Ger- 
many; but "none of these things moved 
him," and he left them behind. 

After six months in Lutheran Germany, 
Hamilton, in the autumn of 1527, returned 
to Scotland, ready to die for the Gospel. 
He preached to his relatives at Kincavel, 
and also in all the country round, even in 
beautiful St. Michael's at Linlithgow, the 
Versailles of Scotland. 

In consequence of his preaching the 
monks of Kelso complained of "these evil 
times, in the increase of Lutheranism," 
and the Canons of Holyrood bewailed "these 
wretched Lutheran times." 


Hamilton Marries. 

Soon after his return to Scotland, Hamil- 
ton married a young lady of noble rank, 
and a daughter, named Isabel, was born to 
them. In 1543 she was a lady in attend- 
ance at the court of the Regent Arran. He 
gives as his reason for marriage his hatred 
of the hypocrisy of the Roman Church. 


Hamilton is Called to St. Andrews. 

He seems to have felt on the occasion very 
much as Luther did in similar circum- 
stances: he wished to show, by deed as 
well as word, how entirely he had cast off 
the usurped and oppressive tyranny of 


Hamilton is Called to St. Andrews., 

A Lutheran missionary, with royal blood 
in his veins, and all the power of Hamilton 
at his back, was a most dangerous heretic 
in Scotland. The moment was critical; 
no time must be lost; Archbishop Beaton 
must bestir himself. The Primate desired 
a conference with Hamilton at St. Andrews 
on the condition of the Church. Before 
he went, Hamilton told his relatives that 
he had not long to live. But as Luther 
went to Worms, in spite of dangers, to 
confess his faith, so Hamilton went to 
St. Andrews, in spite of dangers, to con- 
fess his faith. He arrived about the middle 
of January, 1528, and had several private 
conferences with the Primate and his 
helpers ; he also, for nearly a month, taught 
openly in the university on all points of 
doctrine and practise needing a change. 


Hatnilton Debates. 

Hamilton Debates. 

Canon Alexander Alane had publicly re- 
futed the arch-heretic Luther himself, not 
only to his own satisfaction, but to the 
satisfaction of all the theologians of 
St. Andrews. He now wished to bring 
bdck to the Church the misguided Ham- 
ilton. But the young Lutheran divine 
proved more than a match for the learned 
Canon and sent him away to his study 
shaken in his old faith. He became Hamil- 
ton's fervent admirer and attached disciple 
and the first historian of his teaching, 
trial, and martyrdom. 

Alexander Campbell, prior of the Domini- 
cans, also often talked with Hamilton, and 
acknowledged the truth of his words. "Yes, 
the Church is in need of reformation in 
many ways," the prior said. But later he 
betrayed and accused Hamilton. 


Hamilton is Called Before the 

When Beaton and his advisers felt it 
safe to throw off the mask, they summoned 


Hamilton is Called Before the Archbishop. 

Hamilton to appear before the Primate on 
a certain day to answer to the charge of 
teaching divers heresies. 

Hamilton's friends begged him to flee. 
But he said "he had come thither to con- 
firm the minds of the godly by his death as 
a martyr to the truth; and to turn his 
back now would be to lay a stumbling-block 
in their path, and to cause some of them 
to fall." 

Sir James Hamilton, the Reformer's 
brother, made use of all his powers as a 
baron, a sheriff, and a captain of one of 
the King's castles, to gather a strong force 
to rescue his brother from the death planned 
by the clergy. But a long storm in the 
Firth hindered him from reaching St. An- 
drews in time. John Andrew Duncan, 
Laird of Airdie, who had fought on Flod- 
den Field, armed his tenants and servants 
to save Hamilton; but the Archbishop's 
horsemen took him a prisoner, and he had 
to go into exile. Appeal had been made to 
the powerful Earl of Angus and to the 
King, but the advice was coldly given "that 
the Reformer make his peace with the 

From the moment Hamilton was called 


Hamilton is Condemned. 

to appear before the Primate and his 
council, he redoubled his labors as an evan- 
gelist and confined himself to the most 
important points in which the Papacy had 
departed from the Bible. 

"Being not only forward in knowledge, 
but also ardent in spirit, not tarrying for 
the hour appointed, he prevented the time, 
and came very early in the morning before 
he was looked for," says Fox. 


Hamilton is Condemned. 

Hamilton's thirteen articles of faith were 
referred to a Council of Theologians. 
Seven of these articles treat of the Lutheran 
doctrine of justification by faith ; the other 
six treat of purgatory, auricular confes- 
sion, etc.; one declares the Pope to be the 
Antichrist. In a few days the Council 
judged all the articles to be heretical. This 
judgment was to be presented at a solemn 
meeting of the highest dignitaries of the 
Church in the cathedral on the last day of 
February, 1528. 

The captain of the castle with an armed 
band arrested Hamilton. Everything was 


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— — T. 

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Hamilton is Condemned. 

now ready for the last act of the tragedy. 
On the appointed day the people crowded 
to the cathedral at an early hour, and the 
Primate passed from the castle with a long 
train of bishops, abbots, priors, and doctors 
and took his seat on the chief bench of the 
tribunal of heresy. 

Friar Campbell read the articles with a 
loud voice, and charged them one by one 
upon the prisoner, and argued they were 
heretical; but Hamilton gently and ably 
defended himself. At length the Domini- 
can was silenced, and he turned to the 
, tribunal for fresh instructions. The bishops 
told him to stop arguing, to call the Re- 
former heretic to his face, and to justify 
the insult by overwhelming him with new 

"Heretick !" Campbell exclaimed, turning 
again to Hamilton. 

"Nay, brother," the Reformer mildly in- 
terrupted, "you do not think me heretick." 

"Heretick! thou saidst it was lawful to 
all men to read the Word of God, and 
especially the New Testament." 

"I wot not if I said so; but I say now 
it is reason and lawful to all men that have 


Hamilton is Condemned. 

souls to read the Word of God, and that 
they are able to understand the same, and 
in particular the latter will and testament 
of Christ Jesus, whereby they may acknowl- 
edge their sins and repent of the same, and 
amend their lives by faith and repentance, 
and come to the mercy of Grod by Christ 

"Now, heretiek, I see that thou affirmest 
the words of thy accusation." 

"I affirm nothing but the w^ord which 
I have spoken in the presence of this 

"Now, farther, thou sayest it is not law- 
ful to worship imagery." 

"I say no more than what God spake to 
Moses "in the twentieth chapter of Exodus, 
in the Second Commandment, 'Thou shalt 
not make any graven image; thou shalt 
not bow down to them to worship them.' " 

"Heretiek, knowest thou not that im- 
agery is the books of the laic and common 
people, to put them in remembrance of the 
holy saints that wrought for their salva- 
tion ?" 

"Brother! it ought to be the preaching 
of the true Word of God that should put 


Hamilton is CotHlemned. 

the people in remembrance of the blood of 
Christ and their salvation." 

"Heretick ! thou sayest it is but lost labor 
to pray to, or call upon, saints, and in par- 
ticular on the blessed Virgin Mary, or John, 
James, Peter, or Paul, as mediators to God 
for us." 

"I say with Paul, 'There is no mediator 
betwixt God and man but Christ Jesus, His 
Son' ; and whatsoever they be who call or 
pray to any saint departed, they spoil Christ 
Jesus of His office." 

"Heretick! thou sayest it is all in vain 
our labors made for them that are departed, 
when we sing soul-masses, psalms, and diri- 
ges, which are the relaxation of the souls 
that are departed, who are continued in the 
pains of purgatory." 

"Brother! I have read in the Scripture 
of God of no such a place as purgatory ; nor 
yet believe I that there is anything that 
may purge the souls of men but the blood 
of Christ Jesus, which ransom standeth in 
no earthly thing, nor in soul-mass nor 
dirige, nor in gold nor silver, but only by 
repentance of sins, and faith in the blood 
of Christ Jesus." 


Hamilton is Condemned. 

Turning- round to the tribunal, the Prior 
said: "My Lord Archbishop, you hear he 
denies the institutions of holy kirk, and the 
authority of our Holy Father the Pope. 
I need not to accuse him any more." 

Such was Patrick Hamilton's noble con- 
fession in the face of that hostile tribunal 
and large assembly. He spoke out the truth 
of God and disguised nothing, though well 
aware what his plain speech would cost him. 

One of his judges was the Earl of Cas- 
silis, only thirteen years old; another was 
Patrick Hepburn, a prior of monks, who 
had eleven illegitimate children and boasted 
of his adulteries; later he became Bishop 
of Moray; another was the Abbot David 
Beaton. "He publicly indulged in a licen- 
tiousness not uncommon with the eminent 
clergy of his time, and lived in open con- 
cubinage with a lady of a noble family, 
Marian Ogilvie, by whom he had six chil- 
dren." Later he became a cardinal and 
spent his nights with prostitutes, and his 
days in burning people for reading the 

King James V "repeated the exhortation 
in his last Parliament, declaring that the 


From the Original in Holjrood Palace. 



From a Painting in the Duke of 
Devonshire's Possession. 


Hamilton Sentenced. 

negligence, the ignorance, the scandalous 
and disorderly lives of the clergy, were the 
causes why church and churchmen were 
scorned and despised," 

The "Memoire" addressed to the Pope by 
Queen Mary and the Dauphin also attrib- 
utes the spread of "heresy" to the ignorance 
and immorality of the Catholic clergy. 

Hamilton Sentenced. 

The Primate, with unanimous consent of 
his assessors, then solemnly pronounced sen- 
tence : "... We have found the same 
Magister Patrick many ways infamed with 
heresy, disputing, holding, and maintaining 
divers heresies of Martin Luther and his 
followers. . . . We have found also that 
he hath affirmed, published, and taught 
divers opinions of Luther and wicked here- 
sies after that he was summoned to appear 
before us and our council, . . . and there- 
fore do judge and pronounce him to be de- 
livered over to the secular power to be 
punished, and his goods to be confiscate." 

The tribunal instantly rose, and Hamil- 
ton was led back to prison under a guard 


Q a 





Hamilton Burned. 

several thousand strong. The executioners 
at once prepared the stake at which he was 
to be burned, in front of the gate of 
St. Salvator's College. 

Hamilton Burned. 

Followed by his servant and a few inti- 
mate friends, Hamilton at noon accompa- 
nied the captain with a quick step to the 
place of burning, carrying in his right hand 
a copy of the four Gospels. He uncovered 
his head, and, lifting up his eyes to heaven, 
addressed himself in silent prayer to Him 
who alone could- give him a martyr's 
strength and victory. The book he gave to 
one of his friends; his cap and gown and 
other upper garments he gave to his 
servant with the words, "This will not profit 
in the fire; they will profit thee. After 
this, of me thou canst receive no com- 
modity, except the example of my death, 
which I pray thee bear in mind. For albeit 
it be bitter to the flesh and fearful before 
man, yet is it the entrance to eternal life, 
which none shall possess that denies Christ 
Jesus before this wicked generation." 


Hamilton Burned. 

The officials of the Archbishop offered 
him his life if he would recant his confes- 
sion in the cathedral. "As to my confession, 
I will not deny it for awe of your fire, for 
my confession and belief is in Christ Jesus. 
Therefore I will not deny it; and I will 
rather be content that my body burn in this 
fire for confession of my faith in Christ 
than my soul should burn in the fire of hell 
for denying the same. But as to the sen- 
tence pronounced against me this day by 
the bishops and doctors, I here, in the 
presence of you all, appeal contrary the 
said sentence and judgment given against 
me, and take me to the mercy of God." 

Says Pitscottie: "The servant of God 
entered in contemplation and prayer to 
almighty God to be merciful to the people 
who persecuted him, for there were many 
of them blinded in ignorance, that they 
knew not what they did. He also besought 
Christ Jesus to be Mediator for him to the 
Father, and that He would strengthen him 
with His Holy Spirit, that he might stead- 
fastly abide the cruel pains and flames of 
fire prepared for him." 

The martyr was bound to the stake with 
an iron chain. Fire was laid to the pile 


Hamilton Burned. 

of wood and coals, and it exploded some 
powder placed among the fagots. The mar- 
tyr's left hand and left cheek were scorched 
by the explosion. Though thrice kindled, 
the flames took no steady hold of the pile. 
"Have you no dry wood?" demanded the 
sufferer. "Have you no more gunpowder?" 
It took some time to fetch more wood and 
powder, and the martyr suffered acutely. 
Nevertheless "he uttered divers comfortable 
speeches to the bystanders," and addressed 
himself calmly to more than one of the 
friars, who molested him with their cries, 
bidding him convert and pray to the Virgin 
Mary. To one he said w^ith a smile : "You 
are late with your advice, when you see mo 
on the point of being consumed in the 
flames. If I had chosen to recant, I need 
not have been here. But I pray you come 
forward and testify the truth of your reli- 
gion by putting your little finger into this 
fire in which I am burning with my whole 
body." Friar Campbell, his betrayer and 
accuser, was foremost among the tor- 
mentors. To him Hamilton at last said: 
"Wicked man ! Thou knowest it is the 
truth of God for which I now suffer. So 


Hamilton Burned. 

much thou didst confess to me in private, 
and thereupon I appeal thee to answer be- 
fore the judgment-seat of Christ." 

Soon after, Campbell lost his senses, and 
fell into a fever, of which he died. And so 
the people looked upon Hamilton as a 
prophet as well as a martyr. 

Surrounded and devoured by fierce flames, 
Hamilton still remembered his widowed 
mother and commended her to the care of 
his friends, as Christ on the cross com- 
mended His mother to John. 

When he was nearly burned through the 
middle by the fiery chain, some one wished 
a last sign if he still had faith in the doc- 
trine for which he was dying. He raised 
three fingers of his half -consumed hand, 
and held them up steadily till he died. His 
last words were: "How long. Lord, shall 
darkness overwhelm this kingdom? How 
long wilt Thou suffer this tyranny of men? 
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" 

The execution lasted for nearly six hours, 
it being about six o'clock before his body 
was quite reduced to ashes. Hamilton was 
only twenty-four years old when he suffered 
death for his Lutheran faith. 


Joy among the Catholics. 

Joy among the Catholics. 

The doctors of Louvain with cruel joy 
thanked Beaton for his services to the faith 
and congratulated, almost with envy, the 
University of St. Andrews upon the honors 
it had earned by such an edifying display 
of Catholic zeal. "Believe not that this 
example shall have place only among you, 
for there shall be those among externe 
nations which shall imitate the same." 

Grief among the Lutherans. 

At Marburg the grief of the Reformers 
was equaled only by their admiration. 
Addressing the Landgrave of Hessen soon 
after, Lambert exclaimed: "He came to 
your university out of Scotland, that remote 
corner of the world; and he returned to 
his country again to become its first and 
now illustrious apostle. He was all on fire 
with zeal to confess the name of Christ, 
and he has offered himself to God as a holy, 
living sacrifice. He brought into the 
Church of God not only all the splendor 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

of his station and gifts, but his life itself. 
Such is the flower of surpassing sweetness, 
yea, the ripe fruit, which your university 
has produced in its very commencement. 
You have not been disappointed in your 
wishes. You founded this school with the 
desire that from it might go forth intrepid 
confessors of Christ and steadfast assertors 
of . His truth. See, you have one such 
already, an example in many ways illus- 
trious. Others, if the Lord will, will follow 
soon." They did. 

Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

Hamilton's youth, his noble blood, his 
recent marriage, and his unflinching cour- 
age moved the hearts of the spectators: 
"the smoke of Patrick Hamilton infected 
all it blew on." "The faith for which 
Hamilton died shall be our faith," the 
people said. 

It was the distinguishing mark of Hamil- 
ton that he represented in Scotland the 
Lutheran Reformation, not the earlier 
Wyclifite or the later Calvinistic. As a 
result of the Gospel-preaching, the Scottish 
nation was born again. Hamilton's doc- 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. ^ 

trine lived after him, and wrought with a 
leaven-like virtue in the nation's heart till 
it leavened the whole lump. "Instead of 
the thorn came up the fir-tree, and instead 
of the brier came up the myrtle-tree." 

The skippers of Leith were diligent im- 
porters of Lutheran books and English New 
Testaments; and it was by the frequent 
reading and hearing of these writings that 
the people, often coming together under 
cover of night, were able to increase their 
knowledge of divine truth, and to cherish 
and confirm their new and better faith. 

Henry Forrest, a young Benedictine" 
monk of Linlithgow, called Hamilton a 
martyr, and read the ~New Testament. The 
Primate said, "We must burn him in order 
to terrify the others." To the north of 
St. Andrews, in Forfar and Angus, many 
people loved the New Testament which was 
come from Germany. There still exists in 
that district a village named Luthermoor, 
and Luther's Bridge, and Luther's Mill, 
and Luther's Torrent, which falls into the 
North Esk. There Henrj- Forrest, Scot- 
land's second martyr, was burned for his 
Lutheran faith, as "equal in iniquity with 
Master Patrick Hamilton." 


Hamilton'' s Influence upon Scotland. 

Alexander Stratoun, Laird of Lauriston, 
read the New Testament in English to his 
brother David, who was the first layman to 
be burned for his faith, August 27, 1534, 
on Calton Hill, Edinburgh. 

When the peddlers of indulgences came 
around to sell forgiveness of sins for cold 
cash, the Vicar of Dollar said to his people : 
"I am bound to speak the truth to you ; this 
is but to deceive you. There is no pardon 
for our sins that can come to us either from 
Pope or any other, but solely by the blood 
of Christ." 

He was accused of the crime of preach- 
ing the Bible to the people. The Bishop 
was lazy and lenient, and urged, if the 
Vicar preached so much, the people might 
get the notion into their heads the Bishop 
ought also to preach. "It is enough for 
you, when you find any good epistle or any 
good gospel, that setteth forth the liberty 
of the Church, to preach that and let the 
rest alone." 

Forret replied he did not know of any 
ill gospel or epistle, in either Old or New 
Testaments which he had read, but if his 
lordship would point out any evil parts, he 
wOuld omit them, and preach only the good. 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

"Nay, brother Thomas, my joy, that I can- 
not do, for I thank God I never knew either 
the Old or New Testament. I will know 
nothing but my breviary and pontifical. 
But go your way, and leave these fancies 
alone, else you will repent it when you can- 
not mend it." 

Forret would not be silenced, and he was 
burned ten years after Patrick Hamilton. 
As the fiery chariots bore his soul aloft, he 
prayed portions of the Psalms telling his 
faith in God and hope of glory. 

No fewer than nine Black Friars of 
St. Dominic endured exile or death from 
1528 to 1544. The first of these to preach 
the Gospel was Alexander Seyton, confessor 
of the young King James Y. He spoke 
plainly in the confessional to the immoral 
King, and in the pulpit against immoral 
bishops. Of course, he had to flee for his 
life. He became chaplain of the Duke of 
Suffolk in England, and was succeeded by 
John Willock, another Scotch exile. 

Kennedy, a young man of Ayr, not yet 
eighteen, "of an excellent ingyne in Scot- 
tish poesy," was arrested for heresy in 1539, 
and with Jerome Russell was burned. 

John Erskine, the Laird of Dun, w'as 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

married at what people in those times 
called the "perfect age of fourteen years." 
From his travels abroad he brought with 
him a learned Frenchman, Petrus de Mar- 
siliers, to introduce Greek into Montrose. 
Erskine became an ardent reformer and, 
though a layman, a Superintendent, or 
Bishop of the Kirk. He placed the crown 
on the head of King James VI in 1567 at 

George Wishart and Andrew Melville 
learned Greek at Erskine's school at Mont- 
rose, and for teaching the Greek New Testa- 
ment there George Wishart was accused of 
heresy and exiled; in 1545 he was burned 
to death at St. Andrews. As a result of 
this. Cardinal David Beaton was murdered 
in the Castle of St. Andrews the next year. 

Eobert Eichardson of St. Andrews be- 
came a Lutheran preacher soon after 1530 
in England under Thomas Cromwell, Prime 
Minister to Henry VIH. 

In 1532 "there was ane greit objuratioun 
of the favouraris of Mertene Lutar in the 
Abbey of Halyrudhous" ; of course, all 
their property was taken by the King. Two 
years later in the same place sixteen were 



5 > 

^ I 

" r. 











Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

convicted, and they lost all their goods to 
the King. 

Norman Gourlay was burned for marry- 
ing a wife. "But if he had used ten thou- 
sand whores, he had not been burned," 
grimly remarks Pitscottie in his history. 

Andrew Chartres of Dundee, a Car- 
thusian monk, had to flee to England in 
1538, and then studied a year in Witten- 

'Way up in Perth, James Kesby had 
preached the teaching of Wyclif, and was 
burned in 1407. But this did not keep 
John M' Alpine, of the famous clan Alpine, 
and Prior of the Monastery at Perth, from 
becoming a distinguished Lutheran in 1534. 
He had to flee for his life to England; in 
1540 he went to Wittenberg and became a 
friend of Luther and Melanchthon ; the 
latter called him Joannes Macchabaeus. 
Upon their recommendation he was made 
professor of theology in the University of 
Copenhagen in Denmark, and was one of 
the translators of the Bible into Danish. 

Although another Wyclifite preacher had 
been burned about 1422 at Glasgow, John 
M'Dowel, a Black Friar of the University 
of Glasgow, "a man of singular prudence, 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

besides his learning and godliness," became 
a Lutheran and had to flee from Scotland 
about 1537 to England and about 1540 to 
Germany, where he was elected Buerger- 
meister of a city. 

Soon after Hamilton's death, Gavyn 
Logic, principal regent of St. Leonard's 
College, a man of high standing in the Uni- 
versity of St. Andrews, went over to Lu- 
theranism, and spread the doctrine among 
his students till he was exiled in 1534. 

One of his students, John Fyfe, or 
Joannes Faithus, studied at Wittenberg in 
1539. Melanchthon called him Joannes 
Fidelis, and recommended him as a profes- 
sor of theology at Frankfort in 1547. 

David Lyne, a Franciscan, was driven 
away about 1538, and at Wittenberg won 
the heart of Melanchthon by his piety and 
learning; and in a letter of August, 1556, 
the Preceptor of Germany recommends him 
to John Faith, the Scotch Lutheran pro- 
fessor at Frankfort. 

In Dundee the three Wedderburns ex- 
celled in "gude and godly ballads," largely 
translations of Luther's hymns, and these 
were sung by the earliest Scottish reformers 
to the original Lutheran tunes. Of the 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

three brothers John at least had been with 
Luther at Wittenberg in 1539. 

Canon Alexander Alane, whom we already 
know, spoke his mind regarding the cruelty- 
displayed in Hamilton's death. Archbishop 
Beaton and Prior Hepburn laid a trap for 
liim by appointing him preacher before the 
provincial synod of clergy in St. Andrews 
in 1529. He preached on the duty of the 
clergy to feed the flock and to set a good 
example. The Archbishop smelled a taint 
of Luther anism in the Canon's officious zeal 
for morality, and it gave mortal offense to 
Hepburn, who felt personally condemned 
for his notorious adulteries. Hepburn put 
Alane into a filthy dungeon for months, and 
kicked him on the head, almost killing him. 
The King interposed, but without effect. 

Seeing that nothing short of Alane's 
death would satisfy the Prior, the Canon's 
friends helped him to escape on the ship 
•of a German, ready to sail, 1532. He saw 
two young Lutherans burned in Cologne, 
and in 1533 came to Wittenberg, where 
Melanchthon changed his name to Alesius, 
i. e., the Wanderer, and from that time he 
was known as Aleander Alesius. He was 
without funds, and so Luther and Melanch- 






Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

thou got the Elector of Saxony to give him 
the prebend of Altenburg. They were kind 
to the Scots, for their forefathers had sent 
the early Christian missionaries to the 
heathen Germans. Later he invited Me- 
lanchthon to the baptism of his little Anna. 

At Wittenberg he printed two eloquent 
epistles, pleading with the King of Scots 
to permit the reading of the Bible in the 
mother-tongue. Cochlaeus stoutly asserts 
that these letters were written by Melanch- 
thon, "that Coryphaeus of heresy, that 
architect of lies." Perhaps Melanchthou 
revised these letters, as he did the works of 
many others. Here Alesius became a Lu-- 
theran and signed the Augsburg Confession. 
When Alesius, in 1535, was sent by Me- 
lanchthou with a prresent of books to Cran- 
mer and Henry VIII of Engand, John 
Stigelius "pursued him with an elegy." 

The King made him a teacher of theology 
at Queen's College, Cambridge; but he was 
too Lutheran, his life was in danger, and 
he left to practise medicine in London. In 
1537 Thomas Cromwell used him to dispute 
against the Catholics "Of the Auctorite of 
the Word of God concerning the Number of 
the Sacraments"; it was dedicated to John 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

Frederick of Saxony. In 1540 Elector 
Joachim II of Brandenburg made him pro- 
fessor of theology at Frankfort. In 1543 
he refused a call of Duke Albrecht of 
Prussia to the new University of Koenigs- 
berg. He went to Leipzig as professor of 
theology, and when the news came to 
Melanchthon at Bonn that the Scotch Par- 
liament had permitted the Bible to every 
one, he wrote to Camerarius his fears that 
the Scotchman would be off again to Scot- 
land on the wings of Daedalus. But Alesius 
stayed in Leipzig; in 1555 and 1561 he was 
even chosen Rector of the University. Full 
of honors, he died March 17, 1565. 

Soon after Hamilton's death. Sir James 
Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee and he- 
reditary standard-bearer of the kingdom, 
stood forward as a fearless defender of 
oppressed Lutherans, and frankly told the 
mitered Prior Patrick Hepburn how gladly 
he would have foiled the cleric's cruel de- 
signs. This was an important accession to 
the cause of the Reformation, since Sir 
James was connected with powerful fam- 
ilies, and these became associated with the 

John Andrew Duncan, Laird of Airdie, 


Hamilton's Influence vpon Scotland. 

who had tried to rescue Hamilton, became 
a Lutheran, and greatly influenced the old 
families of Fife and Perthshire, where Paul 
Craw, the Bohemian Hussite, and James 
Resby, the English Wyclifite, had been 
burned for preaching the Gospel. 

Henry Balnaves studied at Cologne, and, 
of course, Joecame acquainted with the Lu- 
theran Reformation. In 1543 he was 
appointed Secretary of State and Keeper 
of all the Seals of our Lady the Queen. At 
this time he was already a Reformer of long 
standing and very useful to the cause. In 
1538 he was marked out for vengeance, and 
escaped only by the sudden death of Thomas 
Scott, who had plotted to kill him. 

Sir David Lindsay, the great poet- 
reformer of Scotland, was roused when the 
alarm of the advent of Lutheranism and 
the voice of Hamilton's martyr testimony 
rang loud through the land. His ^'Dreme," 
and "Complaint," and "Testament and 
Complaint," and "The Three Estates" 
greatly served the Reformation. 

George Buchanan, tutor to James YI, in 
his "Somnium," "Palinodia," and "Fran- 
ciscanus," pungent and powerful satires in 
purest Latin, was a vast help to the Refor- 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

mation. Even the King could not shield 
him from the vengeance of his clerical ene- 
mies, and he had* to flee to England. 

Sir James Hamilton, Patrick's elder 
brother, was excommunicated and banished, 
and his lands and goods confiscated to the 
crown. His sister Katherine appeared be- 
fore the tribunal in the Church of Holy- 
rod, and pleaded her own cause with great 
spirit and courage. "Being questioned on 
the point of justification by works, she 
answered simply that she believed no person 
could be saved by his works. Master John 
Spence, the lawyer, held a long discourse 
with her about that purpose, telling her 
that there were divers sorts of works — 
works of congruity and works of condig- 
nity; in the application whereof he con- 
sumed a long time. The young woman 
growing thereupon into a chafe, cried out, 
'Work here, work there, what kind of work- 
ing is all this? I know perfectly that no 
works can save me but the works of Christ, 
my Savior !' " The King was sitting on the 
bench and laughed heartily at her answer; 
yet, taking the gentlewoman aside, he moved 
her to recant her opinions. She granted to 
his princely entreaties what she had stoutly 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

refused to the lawyer's arguments and 
sophistical distinctions, and professing her 
submission to the authority of the Church, 
she was allowed to escape. 

But she again became a Lutheran, for in 
1539 we find her mentioned in a letter of 
the Duke of Norfolk, the English governor 
of Berwick, as having been a fugitive in 
that city "for a good season, and she dare 
not return for holding our ways." 

She was not the only fugitive from Scot- 
land for her religion, for Norfolk reports to 
Cromwell that every day there came to him 
"some gentlemen and some clerks, fleeing 
out of Scotland for reading the Scripture 
in English, saying that if they were taken, 
they should be put to execution." 

Lord Ruthven was "a stout and discreet 
man in the cause of God." John Stewart, 
son of that Lord Methven who married the 
Dowager Queen Margaret, "was a professor 
of the truth" and was "convict of heresy." 

William Hay, Earl of Errol, "was learned 
both in humanity and divinity, and specially 
well versed in the New Testament. He 
would rehearse, word by word, the choicest 
sentences, specially such as served to estab- 
lish solid comfort in the soul by faith in 





Hamilton's Influence upon ticotland. 

Christ. He suffered much for the cause 
of Christ." 

Sir John Borthwick, a scholar and sol- 
dier, a theologian and courtier, was a Lu- 
theran, and tried to convert King James V 
to Luther anism. In 1540 he was accused 
of having "divers books suspected of heresy, 
including the New Testament in English, 
Oecolampadius, Melanchthon, and several 
treatises of Erasmus" ; he was excommuni- 
cated and burned in effigy in St. Andrews. 

On St. Paul's Day, January 25, 1543, at 
Perth, Robert Lamb, James Hunter, Wil- 
liam Anderson, and James Ranaldson were 
hanged. While in labor, Mrs. Ranaldson 
refused to pray to the Virgin Mary, and 
therefore was denied the comfort of being 
hanged from the same beam with her hus- 
band, but was drowned, after she had given 
her new-born babe to a friend. 

The Dominican Monastery of Stirling 
had the signal distinction of giving three 
martyrs to the Reformation. One of these 
was John Rough, "the first man from whom 
John Knox received any taste of the truth," 
and in him the religious life, which received 
its first impulse from Patrick Hamilton, 
linked itself on to the work of John Knox. 


Hamilton's Influence upon Scotland. 

The most striking and impressive proof 
of the progress of the Reformation made in 
Scotland at the close of the Hamilton period 
was shown in the passing of the Act of 
Parliament, March 15, 1543, introduced by 
Lord Maxwell, which ordained "that it 
should be lawful to every man to use the 
benefit of the translation which then they 
had of the Bible and New Testament, to- 
gether with the benefit of other treatises 
containing wholesome doctrine." 

Fires flared up afresh, and Walter Mill 
was burned at St. Andrews in 1558 ; but 
he was the last, and the law to permit the 
reading of the Bible was never repealed. 

In view of the influence of Luther on 
Scotland, Professor A. F. Mitchell says : 
"Our native country owes a debt of grati- 
tude which its historians have hitherto been 
slow to acknowledge." 




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